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What is VOB

What Is VOB

A VOB file, also known as Video Object file, is a container format used in DVD-Video media. VOB can contain several streams including video, audio, subtitle and menu multiplexed together into a stream form.

VOB is derived under the MPEG specification, but with additional limitations and specifications in the private streams. The MPEG program stream has provisions for non-standard data (as used in VOB files) in the form of so-called private streams. VOB files are a very strict subset of the MPEG program stream standard. While all VOB files are MPEG program streams, not all MPEG program streams comply with the definition for a VOB file.

Analogous to the MPEG program stream, VOB file can contain H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2 or MPEG-1 Part 2 video, MPEG-1 Audio Layer II or MPEG-2 Audio Layer II audio, but usage of these compression formats in a VOB file has some restrictions in comparison to the MPEG program stream. In addition, VOB can contain Linear PCM, AC-3 or DTS audio and subpictures (subtitles). VOB file cannot contain AAC audio (MPEG-2 Part 7), MPEG-4 compression formats and others, which are allowed in MPEG program stream standard.


DVD files include IFO and BUP files. IFO (Info) files contain all the information a DVD player needs to know about a DVD so that the user can navigate and play all DVD content properly (e.g., where a chapter starts, where a certain audio or subtitle stream is located, information about menu functions and navigation, etc.). BUP (Backup) files are an exact copy and backup of IFO files in case of corruption. VOB files without IFO or BUP files do not allow DVD menu navigation. Images, video and audio used in DVD menus are stored in VOB files. Unlike the IFO or the BUP files, the VOB file is a one hundred percent compatible with the MPEG-2 format meaning that using some specific video tools, you can broadcast a stream of VOB files - meaning very high quality streaming available for streaming!


VOB file formats have an aspect ratio of either 4:3 or 16:9, suited for Televisions or computer monitors. For MPEG audio, the sampling is 48KHz, while for others (typically not used), the rates differ. Variable bit rate is typically not used, and frame rate varies between 29.97 frames per second to 24fps.



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